Official and Internet translations – comparison of culture-related aspects from the perspective of foreignization and domestication dichotomy

Keywords: refraction, Internet translation, foreignization, domestication, comparative analysis


Aim. The study aimed at establishing whether there are any significant differences between the two translations of the same novels: one published unofficially and anonymously on the Internet, and the other published officially by the publisher. The elements taken into consideration in the analysis were: the culture-bound elements, the vulgar terms, and syntactic calques.

Methods. The theoretical part of the research is based on the refraction theory by A. Lefevere (1992), according to whom translation is a process regulated by a system in which it functions. In opposition to the regulated translational activity stands unofficial Internet translation. The comparative analysis of the translations was further developed with the application the ‘foreignisation’and domestication dichotomy proposed by L. Venuti (1995).

Results and conclusion. The results of the study imply that there are significant differences between the official and unofficial translations; the official translations aim at domesticating techniques, whereas the unofficial translations are more likely to apply ‘foreignising’ techniques, even at the cost of breaking cultural values of the target culture.

Cognitive value. The Internet has become an  inseparable part of modern people’s daily life, yet Internet activities are still not regulated and researched to such a degree as ‘real world’ ones. The study aims at showing differences between the Internet and official translation, however, it is not able to answer the question regarding the roots of these differences. Further inquiries would be necessary in this case – if even possible.

Author Biography

Patrycja Karpińska, University of Wrocław, Institute of English Studies,ul. Kuźnicza 22, Wrocław, Poland

Patrycja Karpińska – graduate of the English Philology in Philological School of Higher Education in Wrocław. Currently PhD student and lecturer at the University of Wrocław. Translator of scientific articles, specializing in sociology. In her academic work, she is especially interested in the theories of the cultural turn in Translation Studies and the sociology of translation.


1. Abbi Glines (2018). Retrieved from
2.Agata Żbikowska’s Goldenline profile. (n.d.). Retrieved March 15, 2018, from
3. Baker, M. (2014). The Changing Landscape of Translation and Interpreting Studies. In: S. Bermann, C. Porter (Eds.), A Companion to Translation Studies. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell. DOI: 10.1002/9781118613504.ch1.
4. Carmack, C. (2012). Losing It. New York: HarperCollins.
5. Carmack, C. (2014). Losing It, tran. waydale. Retrieved April 28, 2018, from
6. Carmack, C. (2014). Coś do stracenia [Losing It], trans. I. Wasilewska. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Jaguar.
7. Colleen Hoover (n.d.). Retrieved April 26, 2018, from
8. Cora Carmack on Goodreads (n.d.). Retrieved May 1, 2018, from
9. Coś do ocalenia [Finding It] (n.d.). Retrieved August 3, 2018, from
10. Garcarz, M. (2006). Wulgaryzmy a przekład, czyli życie wulgaryzmów od oryginału do przekładu [Vulgarisms vs. translation – life of vulgarisms from an original text to its translation]. Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Linguistica Rossica 2, 159-173.
11. Glines, A. (2014). Take a Chance. New York: Atria Books.
12. Glines, A. (2014). Ryzykując miłość [Take a Chance], trans. MoreThanBooks. Retrieved March 15, 2018 from
13. Glines, A. (2015). Grając w miłość [Take a Chance], trans. A. Żbikowska. Bielsko-Biała: Wydawnictwo Pascal.
14. Hejwowski, K. (2004). Translation: A Cognitive-communicative Approach. Olecko: Wydawnictwo Wszechnicy Mazurskiej.
15. Hejwowski, K. (2007). Kognitywno-komunikatywna teoria przekładu [Translation. A cognitive-communicative approach]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
16. Hoover, C. (2014). Maybe Someday. New York: Atria Books.
17. Hoover, C. (2016). Maybe Someday, trans. marika1311. Retrieved February 17, 2018, from
18. Hoover, C. (2016). Maybe Someday, trans. P. Grzegorzewski. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Otwarte.
19. Kacza zupa blog. (n.d.). Retrieved May 1, 2018, from
[20] Karpińska, P. (2015). »Slaves, obey your earthly master« - foreignization in the Polish literary translation in the postcolonial context. Retrieved from:
21. Kielar, Z. B. (1988). Tłumaczenie i koncepcje translatoryczne [Translation and translational conceptions]. Zakład Narodowy Imienia Ossolińskich, Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk.
22. Lefevere, A. (1982). Mother Courage’s Cucumbers: Text, System and Refraction in a Theory of Literature. Modern Language Studies 12(4). 3-20. DOI: 10.2307/3194526.
23. Lefevere, A. (2009). Ogórki Matki Courage [Mother Courage’s Cucumbers]. In: P. Bukowski, M. Heydel (Eds.), Współczesne teorie przekładu. Antologia (pp. 223-246). Kraków: Znak.
24. Marika1311’s chomikuj page (n.d.) Retrieved February 18, 2018 from
25. MoreThanBooks’s chomikuj page. (n.d.). Retrieved March 15, 2018 from,
26. MoreThanBooks’s Facebook page (n.d.). Retrieved April 30, 2018, from
27. Olejniczak, J. (2016). Interference Patterns of the Verb Say in the Narration of English-Polish Literary Translations: A Corpus-Based Study. Anglica. An International Journal of English Studies 25(2), 139-150.
28. Piotr Grzegorzewski’s profile on STL website (n.d.). Retrieved January 29, 2018, from
29. Pycia, P. (2012). Przekraczając granice. Problem przekładu wulgaryzmów i przekleństw [Crossing the borders. Problems of curses and vulgarisms translation]. Przekłady Literatur Słowiańskich 3(1). 135-148.
30. Saved by the Bell. Wikipedia page. (2018). Retrieved from
31. Schleiermacher, F. (2006). On the different methods of translating. Trans. Susan Bernofsky. In: L. Venuti (Ed.), The Translation Study Reader (pp. 43-63). 2nd edition. London: Routledge.
32. Taylor Swift was crying hysterically backstage after Kanye’s infamous VMAs stunt. Retrieved May 2, 2018 from
33. Venuti L. (1995). The translator’s invisibility. A history of translation. London: Routledge.
34. Venuti L. (2004). Translation, Community, Utopia. In: L. Venuti (Ed.), The Translation Study Reader (pp. 483-502). London: Routledge.
35. Villeneuve, D. (Director). (2016). Arrival [Motion Picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.
36. Waydale’s chomikuj page. Retrieved May 1, 2018, from*23Przek*c5*82ady+(has*c5*82o+-+przek*c5*82ady)/*23Zako*c5*84czone.
37. Weisberger, L. (2008). Chasing Harry Winston. London: HarperCollins.
38. Weisberger, L. (2009). W pogoni za Harrym Winstonem [Chasing Harry Winston], trans. H. Szajowska. Warszawa: Translegis.
39. Wojtasiewicz, O. (2007). Wstęp do teorii tłumaczenia [Introduction to Translation Theory]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Albatros.
40. Zaleska, Z. (2015). Przejęzyczenie. Rozmowy o przekładzie [Slip of the tongue. Conversations about translation]. Wołowiec: Wydawnictwo Czarne.
How to Cite
Karpińska, P. (2018). Official and Internet translations – comparison of culture-related aspects from the perspective of foreignization and domestication dichotomy. Journal of Education Culture and Society, 9(2), 136-153. Retrieved from